|3 gold rings 12th and 13th centuries - British \Museum|
Stephen, King of the English, greets the archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, justices, barons, sheriffs, ministers and all his faithful men of all England.
May you know that Emma, daughter of Grimbald the physician, has before me and with my consent, quit-claimed and handed back to me all the land that belonged to her father, the latter of which she was seised, as well as the land that was hers by right and of which she was not seised. And, in her presence and with her consent, I have given and granted all that land to Walter Martel in fief and as inheritance for him and his heirs after him, and she pledged that she will warrant it for him everywhere as far as possible; and as far as those lands are concerned of which she is not seised, and which Walter will claim, she will support him as far as is possible to deraign that land at Walter’s expense. She confirmed in the hand of William Martel that she and her heirs hold the land without guile. (That means by putting her hand in William Martel’s as a pledge of good faith that she had not held onto the lands fraudulently).
And in return for this grant Walter gave Emma in my presence one ring of gold, and John Marshal, on whose advice she did this, confirmed for his part that she held this without guile, and Grimbald’s wife, Atselina, will hold the land which she holds in peace from Walter as long as she lives, and afterwards the land will return to Walter’s demesne (no mention as to whether she is Emma's mother or stepmother). I therefore will and firmly command that he shall hold it well and in peace and freely and quietly in all things and places with soke, sake, toll, team and infangthief ( a technical formula for handing over various rights that come with the holding of the land). And all the freedoms belonging to it, with which Grimbald ever most freely held it or somebody else before him.
Witnesses: Waleran count of Meulan; Robert , Earl of Leicester; William Martel; Aubrey de Vere, Robert de Vere, Hugh Bigod; Geoffrey de Mandeville; and Eustace FitzJohn. At Worcester. (circa 1137/8).